This source implements a first fit algorithm for solving the problem of scheduling a round robin tournament. The first fit algorithm is more for study of an interesting programming and math problem than for the basis of a production or planning system. If your are interested in the math you can read my analysis of the problem. Before you expend the effort to understand schedule.c you might first want to see a simpler cyclic algorithm.

Round Robin Home

```/* Schedule.c
*
* Determines a schedule for n-players playing n/2 games
* per match for n-1 matches, where the same two players
* never meet more than once.
*
* Statistically speaking find (n/2)*(n-1) unique combinations
* of n items.
*
* Richard A. DeVenezia
*/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE  1

#define MaxTeams 20
#define MaxCombinations (MaxTeams/2)*(MaxTeams-1)

struct game { int one, two };

int   teams;        /* number of teams (golf) or players (tennis?) */
long  combinations; /* total combinations needed to schedule season */
int   a, b, c, i, m,
startC,
matchCount,
roundCount,
index;

long  round_set;    /* used during searches, if a bit is set then that team has
* already been tenatively scheduled for the round */
long  totalChecks;

struct game tourn[1+MaxCombinations];   /* games */
int    mList[1+MaxTeams/2];             /* matches */
struct game cList[1+MaxCombinations];   /* combinations list */
int    cUsed[1+MaxCombinations];        /* combinations used list */

void ShowSchedule()
{
int index, r, m ;

fprintf( stdout, "\n%d teams", teams );
fprintf( stdout, "\n        ");
for (r=1; r <= teams/2; r++) fprintf( stdout, " Game%d", r);
fprintf( stdout, "\n" );
fprintf( stdout, "        +-");
for (r=1; r <= (teams/2)*6-2; r++) fprintf( stdout, "-" );
fprintf( stdout, "\n" );

index = 1;
for (r=1; r <= teams-1; r++) {
fprintf( stdout, "Week %2d |", r);
for (m=1; m <= teams/2; m++) {
fprintf( stdout, "%2d&%2d ", tourn[index].one, tourn[index].two );
index++;
}
fprintf( stdout, "\n" );
}
fprintf( stdout, "\n%d combinations tried\n\n", totalChecks );
}

void ClearArrays()
{
int i;

for (i=0; i <= MaxCombinations; i++) { tourn[i].one = 0; tourn[i].two = 0; }
for (i=0; i <= MaxTeams/2; i++) mList[i] = 0;
for (i=0; i <= MaxCombinations; i++) { cList[i].one = 0; cList[i].two = 0; }
for (i=0; i <= MaxCombinations; i++) cUsed[i] = 0;
}

main()
{
teams = 2;

while (teams <= MaxTeams) {

combinations = teams/2 * (teams-1);
totalChecks = 0;

ClearArrays();

/* set up list of all combinations */  /*       a       */
m = 1;                                 /* b 1 2 3 4 5   */
for (a=1;   a < teams; a++)            /* 1             */
for (b=a+1; b <=teams; b++) {          /* 2 .           */
cList[m].one = a;                    /* 3 . .         */
cList[m].two = b;                    /* 4 . . .       */
m++;                                 /* 5 . . . .     */
}

roundCount = 1;
index = 1;

while (roundCount <= teams-1) {

matchCount = 1;
round_set = 0;
for (i=0; i <= MaxTeams/2; i++) mList[i] = 0;
startC = roundCount;

/* proceed with optimism, we will find matches to fill out the round */

while (matchCount <= teams/2) {

c = combinations + 1;
while (c > combinations) {

c = startC;

/* find an unused pair that would be legitimate */
while ((c <= combinations) &&
((round_set & (1 << cList[c].one)) ||
(round_set & (1 << cList[c].two)) ||
(cUsed[c])
)
)
c++;

if (c > combinations) {
/* did not find an unused legitimate pair, back off */
do {
mList[matchCount] = 0;

matchCount--;
index--;

round_set &= ~(1 << cList[mList[matchCount]].one);
round_set &= ~(1 << cList[mList[matchCount]].two);

cUsed[mList[matchCount]] = FALSE;

tourn[index].one = 0;
tourn[index].two = 0;

} while (cList[mList[matchCount]  ].one !=
cList[mList[matchCount]+1].one);

startC = mList[matchCount] + 1;
}
}

/* found a match that fits into the round, keep going until
* all matches in the round have been scheduled
*/

tourn[index] = cList[c];
totalChecks++;

if ((totalChecks % 1000) == 0) fprintf( stdout, "%d\033A\n", totalChecks );

cUsed[c] = TRUE;
mList[matchCount] = c;

startC = 1;

round_set |= (1 << cList[c].one);
round_set |= (1 << cList[c].two);

index++;
matchCount++;
}

/* found enough matches to fill a round, schedule the next round */
roundCount++;
}

/* yahoo!, scheduled all the rounds */

fprintf( stdout, "          " );
ShowSchedule();

/* try and make a schedule using two more teams */
teams += 2;
}
}
```